There are two main types of diabetes, called type 1 and type 2. And also type 1 diabetes formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes incidence. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is unable to produce insulin. Found abnormal antibodies in most patients who suffer from diabetes type 1.
Antibodies are proteins in the blood that are part of the body’s immune system. The patient must with type 1 diabetes rely on insulin medication for survival.
In autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes type 1, the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies and inflammatory cells directed against and cause damage to the tissues of the patients in the body.
In people with type 1 diabetes, and attacked the beta cells in the pancreas, which are responsible for producing insulin, by misdirected immune system. It is believed that the tendency to develop abnormal antibodies in type 1 diabetes is, in part, through genetic inheritance, although not fully understood details.
Exposure to some viral infections (Coxsackievirus mumpsand) or other environmental toxins to move the service replies abnormal antibodies that cause damage to cells in the pancreas where insulin.
Some antibodies observed in type 1 diabetes include antibodies anti-cells Island, anti-insulin and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. And can detect these antibodies in most patients, which may help to identify people at risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Currently, the American Diabetes Association recommends any public assessment of the population of type 1 diabetes, although the projection of high-risk individuals such as those with a first-degree relatives (parents or siblings) with the type and should be encouraged to 1.
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in young, thin, usually before 30 years of age, however, provide older patients, with this type of diabetes in some cases, referred to this sub-group such as autoimmune diabetes inherent in adults (LADA). LADA is a slowly progressive form of diabetes type 1. For all people with diabetes and only about 10% have type 1 diabetes and the remaining 90% of type 2 diabetes.
In diabetes type 2, patients can still produce insulin, but doing so is relatively insufficient to meet the needs of the body, especially in the face of insulin resistance as mentioned above. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger quantities than usual insulin. An important feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body (particularly fat and muscle cells).
In addition to problems with increased insulin resistance, insulin secretion from the pancreas is defective and also suboptimum. In fact, there is a continuous decline in production of beta cells known as insulin in diabetes type 2 contributes to worsening glucose control. Finally, despite the introduction of sugar glucose, levels are high.
While it is said that Type 2 diabetes occurs mainly in people over 30 years of age and incidence increases with advancing age, and we are seeing a huge number of patients with type 2 diabetes who are barely in their teens. Most of these cases are a direct result of poor eating habits, body weight gain, and lack of exercise.
While, there are strong genetic component to the development of this type of diabetes and other risk factors – the most important is obesity. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this is true in children and adults. It is estimated that the risk of diabetes is doubling every 20% increase for ideal body weight.
With regard to age, and data indicate that each decade after the age of 40, regardless of weight, there is an increase in the incidence of diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in people aged 65 and older is about 27%. Type 2 diabetes is more common in certain ethnic groups.
Finally, diabetes is more common in women with a history of diabetes that develops during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Hormonal changes can be important during pregnancy leads to high blood sugar in people genetically susceptible. High blood sugar during pregnancy is diabetes called gestational.
Gestational diabetes usually disappears after the baby is born. However, 35% and 60% of women with gestational diabetes eventually develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years to the next 20, and especially in those who require insulin during pregnancy and those who still suffer from weight gain after delivery.
And requests usually patients who suffer from diabetes gestational to undergo glucose tolerance test oral, about six weeks after birth to determine if continued beyond gestational diabetes, or if the evidence (for example, impaired glucose tolerance) exists that may be evidence of the patient’s future risk of diabetes.
“Secondary” refers to diabetes elevated levels of sugar in the blood of another medical condition. Secondary diabetes develops when the tissue is destroyed pancreas responsible for producing insulin from this disease, such as chronic pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas from toxins such as excess alcohol), trauma, or surgical removal of the pancreas.
Diabetes can also result from other hormonal disorders such as excessive production of growth hormone (acromegaly) and Cushing’s syndrome. In acromegaly, a tumour of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain causes excessive growth hormone, which leads to high blood sugar. In Cushing’s syndrome, adrenal glands produce too much cortisol, which promotes high blood sugar.
Also, some medications can aggravate diabetes control, or “uncovered” underlying diabetes. This is seen in most cases when they are taking steroid medications (such as prednisone), as well as with medications used to treat infections of HIV (AIDS).